Information About Pomeranians©
information will mainly be of interest to Pomeranian pet
The Canadian Kennel Club
Breed Standard describes the Pomeranian as "a compact,
short-coupled dog . . . exhibit[ing] great intelligence . . . The
weight of a Pomeranian for exhibition is 3-7 lb." A
correctly sized Pomeranian should be in the range of about 4-5 lb.
(there is no such thing as a "toy" Pomeranian the
breed is a member of Group 5, known as the Toy Group).
The head of the Pomeranian is "somewhat
foxy in outline" with small erect ears, small almond
shaped eyes, and a rather short neck "covered with a
profuse mane and frill of long, straight hair sweeping from the
underjaw and covering the whole of the front part of the shoulders
and chest as well as the top part of the shoulders . . . The tail
is characteristic of the breed, and should be turned over the back
and carried flat, set high. It is profusely covered with long,
spreading hair." The CKC breed standard calls for a thick
double coat a long outer coat which is held off the body by a
soft fluffy undercoat which protects the dog against hot, cold
and wet weather.
Pomeranians come in a full range of 13 colors including black,
brown, chocolate, red, orange, cream and sable. They also come in
black and tan and parti-colours, a red and white and a black and
white. The most popular color for Pomeranians is orange in various
shades, ranging from light to dark. The orange sometimes comes
with sabling (i.e. black tips) on the ends of the coat on the
back, as well as on the chin and muzzle.
The Pomeranian is one of the most loved
and admired of the Toy Breeds. As far back as the pre-Christian
era, there have been small spitz type dogs depicted in artwork.
Later, during the Roman Empire, dogs resembling Pomeranians were
favorite pets of the great ladies of the period.
His present name recalls the fact that it was in eastern
Europe, in the region of Poland and East Germany known as
Pomerania, that the breed became established. His ancestors were
the same as the Keeshond, the Elkhound and the Samoyed. The
Germans were the first to produce a smaller spitz type breed, for
they recognized the appeal of miniature editions of the breed.
These dogs quickly became popular with the ladies.
In the late 1700s two Pomeranians accompanied Charlotte on
her trip to Great Britain from her native Pomerania. She was to
become the wife of King George III (The Mad King). At this
time, the breed was 20-30 pounds, with foxy heads and long coarse
During Queen Victorias reign the Pomeranian became
increasingly popular. Indeed, the Queen herself exhibited a dog
called Gona, a lemon and white. Although she favored dogs in the
12 to 18 lb. category, in her lifetime, she watched the breed
progress from a somewhat
rocky start. In 1870 when the breed was first officially
recognized, there were only 3 dogs entered at the first show. For
20 years, the popularity of the Pomeranian was limited until 1891,
when the first Pomeranian Club was formed. Show entries rose to
over 60 by 1895, and five years later reached a total of 125. By
this time, it was evident that the breed would survive.
Originally the breed had two size classes for exhibition, the over
8 lb. and the under 8 lb. The smaller dogs became so popular that
no Challenge Certificates were offered for the over 8 lb.
class and it was eventually dropped altogether. Several years
later the Standard was revised to set the upper limit at 7
lb. where it remains to this day. Germany, however, continued to
breed both the medium and the larger sized Pomeranian, and they
today as the Klein and Mittle Spitz that are shown throughout
The breed was also originally seen in solid white, black, or
chocolate and occasionally a few nice parti-colors. In 1913, the
orange dog, Mars, was the first of this color to finish its
championship and the craze for orange and orange sables all but
eliminated the other colors within a few years.
The Pomeranian was officially recognized by the Canadian and
American Kennel Clubs in 1900. The Canadian Standard closely
resembles the English standard, while the American one has
undergone a few more changes. Today we still work to preserve the
endearing qualities of the smallest member of the Spitz family.
Pomeranians are generally
a very healthy, hardy and long-lived breed often, Poms live 15
or 16 years. As with any breed of dogs, however, there are certain
problems that may be encountered.
The most commonly
occurring problems involve the teeth which, if not scrupulously
cared for and maintained through frequent cleaning, can fall out
at a relatively early age, possibly causing heart problems
leading to early death. Less common is a endocrine dermatitis
condition sometimes referred to as black skin disease. This
condition affects a number of different breeds, and while it
involves some (usually temporary) coat loss, it is more of an
aesthetic than a health related condition. Another more common
problem in most toy breeds involves the knees i.e., luxating
patellas. Although common, it is generally not a problem that
frequently requires surgical intervention..
Pomeranians make wonderful pets and are
devoted to their owners. His size makes him an ideal house dog and
a tireless companion outdoors. Their intelligence and reasoning
powers are almost uncanny and they can seem to understand your
every word. It is not wise to bring a puppy into a household with
very young children . . . because of his small size, a young child
may hurt a Pom unknowingly and/or unintentionally. With
supervision, they can grow up with and be the constant companion
of an older child. One Pomeranian is fun but more than one and the
fun is multiplied many times over. Although certainly not guard
dog sized, they can be very defensive when anything unusual occurs
and will bark a warning when anyone approaches the home.
Pomeranians are very quick to learn and should be discouraged from
senseless barking. They are fearless when it comes to strange
dogs, and will become very protective against ones many times
Pomeranians are alert and
active little dogs that have a fearless "big dog"
attitude . . . they think and act as if theyre much bigger than
they actually are. They are highly intelligent and this makes them
easy to train. Many have competed successfully in obedience trials
while others have been trained as hearing assistance dogs. Still
others have been trained in search and rescue for use on sites
where a small-sized dog is necessary and/or advantageous (e.g.,
earthquake sites). Pomeranians have also been used very
successfully as therapy dogs and may often be seen consoling the
sick and elderly in hospitals and nursing homes.
Because of their small
size, Pomeranians make a good apartment dog since they dont
require a lot of exercise and they can easily be trained to a
litter box. Although they require some grooming, their coats can
easily be maintained with a weekly brushing and combing. It is
also important to keep the Pomeranian's toenails short through
regular trimming (at least every 2-3 weeks). They are quite a
hardy breed, requiring little in the way of special care but they
do require lots of love and attention. A Pomeranian's greatest joy
in life is to be near the object(s) of his devotion.
This article is Copyright 2000 by Christine Heartz, Chriscendo;
and Bev Carter, Damascusroad.
with permission of the authors.